There are three main types of modules in Python, those you write yourself, those you install from external sources, and those that are preinstalled with Python.
The last type is called the standard library, and contains many useful modules. Some of the standard library’s useful modules include string, re, datetime, math, random, os, multiprocessing, subprocess, socket, email, json, doctest, unittest, pdb, argparse and sys.
Tasks that can be done by the standard library include string parsing, data serialization, testing, debugging and manipulating dates, emails, command line arguments, and much more!
The Standard Library
Some of the modules in the standard library are written in Python, and some are written in C.
Most are available on all platforms, but some are Windows or Unix specific.
Many third-party Python modules are stored on the Python Package Index (PyPI).
The best way to install these is using a program called pip. This comes installed by default with modern distributions of Python. If you don’t have it, it is easy to install online. Once you have it, installing libraries from PyPI is easy. Look up the name of the library you want to install, go to the command line (for Windows it will be the Command Prompt), and enter pip install library_name. Once you’ve done this, import the library and use it in your code.
Using pip is the standard way of installing libraries on most operating systems, but some libraries have prebuilt binaries for Windows. These are normal executable files that let you install libraries with a GUI the same way you would install other programs.
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