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Exception Handling
 

Central to good programming practices is using error handling techniques. Even the most solid coding skills may not keep a program from crashing should you forget to include exception handling.

An exception is any situation that causes your program to stop normal execution. Exception handling, also called error handling, is an approach to processing runtime errors.

C does not explicitly support exception handling, but there are ways to manage errors:
– Write code to prevent the errors in the first place. You can’t control user input, but you can check to be sure that the user entered valid input. When performing division, take the extra step to ensure that division by 0 won’t occur.
– Use the exit statement to gracefully end program execution. You may not be able to control if a file is available for reading, but you don’t need to allow the problem to crash your program.  

NOTE!
Use errno, perror(), and strerror() to identify errors through error codes.

The exit Command
 

The exit command immediately stops the execution of a program and sends an exit code back to the calling process. For example, if a program is called by another program, then the calling program may need to know the exit status.

Using exit to avoid a program crash is a good practice because it closes any open file connections and processes.

You can return any value through an exit statement, but 0 for success and -1 for failure are typical. The predefined stdlib.h macros EXIT_SUCCESS and EXIT_FAILURE are also commonly used.
For example:

int x = 10;
int y = 0;

if (y != 0)
  printf(“x / y = %d”, x/y);
else {
  printf(“Divisor is 0. Program exiting.”);
  exit(EXIT_FAILURE);

 


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